Functions – Formation of bones and teeth; muscle contraction; Blood clotting; major mineral in colostrum (2.0 – 2.3 g/L) and milk (1.0 – 1.2 g/L)
Deficiency signs – Rickets; hypocalcemia in the first days postpartum or seldom during estrus
Common feed sources and concentration of element – Calcium carbonate (38%), limestone (20% – 33%), monocalcium phosphate (15%), dicalcium phosphate (20%), tricalcium phosphate (30%)
Bioavailability – • 30% in forages • 50% – 70% in mineral sources
Concentration in ration – 0.65% – 0.80%
Tissue and normal concentration – Serum, 8.5 – 11.0 mg/dL
Functions – Formation of bones and teeth; important for energy transferring as part of ATP; important for synthesis of DNA, RNA, phospholipids
Deficiency signs – Deficiency results in pica, which in some countries is a major risk factor for botulism because of bone intake; hypophosphatemia; flaccid paralysis caused by lack of blood phosphate; post-parturient hemoglobinuria caused by hypophosphatemia Excess P intake can induce hypocalcemia in the first week postpartum
Common feed sources and concentration of element – Monocalcium phosphate (21%), dicalcium phosphate (18.5%), tricalcium phosphate (18%)
Bioavailability – 60% – 70%
Concentration in ration – 0.35% – 0.45%
Tissue and normal concentration – Serum, 4.5 – 8.0 mg/dL
Functions – Formation of bones and teeth; important for control of muscle relaxation; cofactor in second messenger systems in cell communication
Deficiency signs – Hypo magnesemia with tetanic paralysis; low blood Mg can exacerbate signs of hypoc alcemia Excess dietary Mg can cause diarrhea and reduced milk production.
Common feed sources and concentration of element – Magnesium oxide (54%), magnesium sulfate anhydrous (19%), or hepta hydrate (9%)
Bioavailability – Varies with intake of dietary K. It ranges from 30% – 70%. Sulfate sources are more bioavailable than oxide.
Concentration in ration – 0.25% – 0.35% (up to 0.4% Mg might be needed in high K and diets rich in unsaturated fatty acids)
Tissue and normal concentration – Serum, 2.0 – 3.0 mg/dL
Functions – Maintenance of electrolyte and acid – base balances; maintenance of electric potential in tissues; major electrolyte in sweat of cows; important for regulation of osmotic pressure, water balance, muscle contractions, nerve impulse transmission, and several enzymatic reactions. Major intracellular cation
Deficiency signs – Hypokalemia (serum K < 2.2 mEq/L) results in muscle weakness, muscle cramps, and cardiac arrhythmias. Cows will present flaccid paralysis, tetany, and can have respiratory depression before death. Common in dehydrated cows receiving treatment with mineralocorticosteroids; it can cause metabolic acidosis. Excess intake of dietary K can inhibit Mg absorption and result in hypomagnesemia.
Common feed sources and concentration of element – Potassium carbonate (55%), potassium bicarbonate (39%), potassium chloride (51%)
Bioavailability – 90%
Concentration in ration – 1.0% – 1.6% (upper value is desired when there is a need to supplement K to increase the cation anion balance of the diet)
Tissue and normal concentration – Serum, 4.0 – 6.0 mEq/L
Functions – Component of tissue proteins; component of S – containing amino acids such as methionine, cysteine, homocysteine, and taurine; important for microbial protein synthesis
Deficiency signs – Deficiency reduces microbial protein synthesis, compromises appetite and synthesis of tissue proteins that require S – containing amino acids. Excess of dietary S (>0.40% diet DM) interferes with Cu and Se absorption; it can induce cerebrocortical necrosis also known as polioencephalomalacia mainly when combined with high grain diets
Common feed sources and concentration of element – Sulfate sources of other minerals such as calcium sulfate (17%), ammonium sulfate (24%), magnesium sulfate (13% – 26%); protein sources rich in sulfur containing amino acids are important dietary sources
Bioavailability – NRC (2001) considers S in sulfate sources 100% bioavailable. Others have suggested only 60%. S element is only 30% – 35% compared with sulfate sources and should not be used as supplemental source of S.
Concentration in ration – 0.20% to 0.22%
Tissue and normal concentration – Not commonly evaluated because most S in tissues is in the form of S – containing amino acids; serum can be used and normal concentrations range from 100 to 120 mg/dL
Functions – Maintenance of electrolyte and acid – base balances
Deficiency signs – Deficiency is uncommon unless cows do not receive any NaCl or develop displacement of abomasum. Hypochloremia can result in metabolic alkalosis.
Common feed sources and concentration of element – Sodium chloride (61%)
Bioavailability – 90%.
Concentration in ration – 0.28% to 0.35%
Tissue and normal concentration – Serum, 95 – 110 mEq/L
Functions – Maintenance of electrolyte and acid – base balances; maintenance of electric potential in tissues; important for muscle and nerve functions. Major extracellular cation
Deficiency signs – Deficiency results in craving for salt; reduced intake and production; dehydration; cardiac arrhythmia. Toxicity as result of water deprivation can cause digestive and central nervous system symptoms such as regurgitation, diarrhea, colic, ataxia, blindness, and seizures
Common feed sources and concentration of element – Sodium chloride (39%), sodium bicarbonate
(27%), sodium sesquicarbonate (31%)
Bioavailability – 90%.
Concentration in ration – 0.28% – 0.45% (upper value is desired when Na is supplemented to increase the cation – anion balance of the ration)
Tissue and normal concentration – Serum, 135 – 155 mEq/L
Functions – Component of heme used for synthesis of hemoglobin and myoglobin; important component of oxygen carrying ability of cells
Deficiency signs – Deficiency is very uncommon in adult animals unless they suffer from blood loss or are infected with blood feeding internal parasites such as Haemonchus placei Toxicity is uncommon. Excess of dietary Fe can interfere with absorption of Cu and Zn. It can accumulate in tissues and increase the needs for cellular antioxidant.
Common feed sources and concentration of element – Ferrous carbonate (38%), ferrous sulfate monohydrate (30%), ferrous sulfate heptahydrate (20%)
Bioavailability – 10% for most dietary sources. Oxides are unavailable.
Concentration in ration – 50 mg/kg. It is seldom supplemented as most lactation diets contain excess of Fe.
Tissue and normal concentration – Serum (nonhemolyzed) or liver tissue; serum concentrations of 0.6 – 1.6μg/mL.
Functions – Tissue integrity; component of metaloenzymes such as superoxide dismutase, component RNA polymerase, alkaline phosphatase, carbonic anhydrase, and alkaline phosphates; participates in the metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids; important for signal transduction and gene expression; influences immune response
Deficiency signs – Inadequate Zn intake reduces feed intake and growth; immunosuppression; parakeratosis; infertility Excess dietary Zn can causes skin lesions; impairs growth; nephrotoxic; digestive mucosa ulcers
Common feed sources and concentration of element – Zinc sulfate (36%)
Bioavailability – 15%
Concentration in ration – 45-55 mg/kg.
Tissue and normal concentration – Serum or liver tissue; serum concentrations of 0.8 – 1.4 μg/mL
Functions – Formation of bones; co – factor for many enzymes; component of superoxide dismutase and cytochrome c oxidase. Important for hair pigmentation, synthesis of hemoglobin, and proper collagen synthesis during bone formation and repair
Deficiency signs – Deficiency results in diarrhea, loss of hair pigmentation, abnormal growth and development of bone, improper collagen formation, anemia, and immunosuppression. Diets high in S and Mo interfere with Cu absorption and metabolism. Toxicity is a common problem because the margin of safety is only two to three times the requirements. Results in hemolytic crisis, severe gastroenteritis, and mucosal ulcers. Animals of the Jersey breed are more susceptible.
Common feed sources and concentration of element – Copper sulfate (25%), copper chloride (58%), copper carbonate (55%). Oxide form is not bioavailable and should not be used as a supplemental source of Cu.
Bioavailability – 5%
Concentration in ration – 12-16 mg/kg.
Tissue and normal concentration – Liver tissue is ideal, but serum can be used with caution. Normal liver Cu is 100 – 200 mg/kg wet tissue; normal serum Cu is 0.6 – 1.5μg/mL
Functions – Formation of bones; co – factor for many enzymes; component of superoxide dismutase
Deficiency signs – Deficiency causes impaired growth, bone and skeletal abnormalities, ataxia, congenital defects
Common feed sources and concentration of element – Manganese carbonate (48%), manganese sulfate anhydrous (60%), and manganese sulfate monohydrate (32%)
Bioavailability – 1%
Concentration in ration – 45-55 mg/kg.
Tissue and normal concentration – Liver tissue, 10 – 24 mg/kg; whole bloods, 0.07 – 0.20μg/mL
Functions – Component of glutathione peroxidase enzymes; cellular antioxidant
Deficiency signs – Deficiency results to muscle dystrophy (white muscle disease), peroxidation of cell membranes, immunosuppression, increased incidence of retained fetal membranes, and mastitis Toxicity is associated with abnormal growth of hooves, hyperthermia, loss of hair, diarrhea, dyspnea
Common feed sources and concentration of element – Sodium selenite (45%) and sodium selenite (37%)
Bioavailability – NRC (2001) suggests 100%, but some studies indicate lower values, between 40 and 70%.
Concentration in ration – 0.3 – 0.5 mg/kg (the maximum allowed amount of Se that can be supplemented in diets is 0.3 mg/kg)
Tissue and normal concentration – Whole blood, 0.08 – 0.14μg/mL; serum values are slightly lower than whole blood
Functions – Synthesis of thyroid hormones; energy metabolism
Deficiency signs – Deficiency causes goiter (hyperplasia of the thyroid glands), abortion and birth of weak and hairless calves, infertility Excess of dietary I can result in excess salivation, tearing, watery nasal discharge; iodine is transferred to milk, and excess dietary I can substantially increase milk concentrations
Common feed sources and concentration of element – Calcium iodate (62%), potassium iodate (57%), potassium iodide (68%), sodium iodide (71%), Ethylenediamine dihydroiodide (EDDI; 80%)
Bioavailability – NRC (2001) suggests 85% for all iodine sources
Concentration in ration – 0.45 – 0.60 mg/kg
Tissue and normal concentration – Serum, 0.10 – 0.40μg/mL
Functions – Synthesis of vitamin B12 in the rumen; vitamin B12 is required for incorporation of propionate into the Krebs cycle during gluconeogenesis and participates in the methionine – folate cycle; microbial growth in the rumen and fiber digestion
Deficiency signs – Deficiency is associated with decreased feed intake, impaired energy metabolism, reduced feed efficiency, weight loss, anemia, and immunosuppression
Common feed sources and concentration of element – Cobalt carbonate anhydrous (46%), cobalt carbonate hexahydrate (24%), cobalt sulfate monohydrate (33%), cobalt sulfate heptahydrate (21%)
Bioavailability – NRC (2001) suggests 100%
Concentration in ration – NRC (2001) suggests 0.11 mg/kg. Because of the wide margin of safety and its role on microbial growth and energy metabolism, most lactating cow diets contain between 0.3 and 0.6 mg/kg
Tissue and normal concentration – Rumen fluid Co concentration > 20 ng/mL; liver tissue concentration of vitamin B12 > 0.3 mg/kg
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- Aids in healthy and shiny skin and hair coat
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- Prevent anorexia & maintain liver health by supplying sufficient Cyanocobalamin and Methylcobalamin
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