There are 2 types of medicines in veterinary medicine system. First is therapeutic drugs and second is nutritional supplements. Vaccines are not consider as medicine.
Therapeutics drugs are used to treat diseases when animal gets seriously ill due to any of the infection.
Nutritional supplements are used to improve the health of the animals which thereby increase production and maintains immune system and keep animal healthy.
Nutritional drainage is very high in high producing animals which make them susceptible to various diseases
Immune system of animals require high energy and protein to work properly. Along with immune boosting supplements high quality nutrition is also required.
When nutrition is not proper than medicine would also do not work properly due to damaged immune system.
So therapy with drugs along with nutritional support brings out best results. So we will see drugs in 2 categories i.e. therapeutics and nutritional supplements.
In previous article I have told you about 15 classes of drugs which are mainly used in veterinary treatment
In one class there could me many salts which have same functions with different intensity. For example, Antibiotic is class in this many types of antibiotics come like fluoroquinolones, tetracyclines, cephalosporins etc. In fluoroquinolones there are many salts like enrofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, marbofloxacin etc. for every salt there are numerous brands. That’s how large number of medicine’s brand could come into the market.
Here we would discuss all classes one by one and about their working. We will see only those salts which are most popular and easily available in the market.
This classification is just for convenience of understanding. However in pharmacological sciences medicines are arranged in more complex system.
Here we first start with class Antibiotics. Antibiotics are the drugs which are used to treat bacterial infections.
There are mainly 5 types of pathogens which infect animals. These are mainly classified as bacteria, viruses, fungus, protozoa and helminthes.
Antibiotics works against bacteria and reduce bacterial infections. Practically in veterinary medicine 5-6 types of antibiotics are being used.
Second class of medicine is Antiprotozoals. Like bacteria there are some other microbes which are structurally different from bacteria that is why most of the antibiotics do not work against protozoa. Protozoal disease like trypanosomiases (Trypanosoma) or babesiosis (Babesia) or coccidiosis (Eimeria) are very serious disease which causes huge economic losses.
Third class is Anthelmentics (or anti-helminthics) which works against internal parasites. There are 3 types of anthelmentics, antinematode, anticestode and antitrematodes.
Fourth are Anti-inflammatory(NSAIDS) – these drugs are used to reduce inflammation which occurs inside body during any kind of infection. Due to this fever and nausea occurs. It does not matter whether infection is due to bacteria or protozoa or virus or any other cause.
Fifth are tranquilizers and sedatives. These are the drugs which are used to reduce the consciousness or activity of animals. These are used when animals are in excessive pain due to any traumatic reason or veterinarian has to perform any kind of surgery.
Anesthetics – it is the sixth class in which have similar function as that of previous class but in more intense form. Anesthetics causes complete loss of consciousness and left animal without any feeling. It is not required by farmers.
Antihistaminics – it is seventh class of drug which reduces allergic reactions inside body. It reduces immune response of body. Most of the times histamine and other cytokines causes intense reactions inside the body during infection. It also reduces congestion.
Eighth class of drugs are Corticosteroids. It very important life saving class of drug which have many functions. It is basically as substitute of hormone which is utilized as drug. Cortisol and corticosterone are body hormone which increases body energy and regulate fluid dynamics of body in emergency life threatening conditions.
Ninth class is Hormones substitutes. There are many reproductive hormones substitutes which are utilized control reproductive pattern in domestic animals. They are also used to correct different reproductive diseases which occur due to deficiency of these hormones.
Phosphorus (energetics) – is the tenth class of drugs which would be use to reduce the energy deficiency in the body and provide strength to the muscles and overall body. It is very essential because phosphorus deficiency is common in high producing animals. This is part of ATP.
Eleventh class – Vitamin injections – vitamins are very essential component of nutrition and their deficiency causes variety of diseases. To overcome those deficiencies we can use vitamin in injection form. In some cases they work very effectively while in some cases they even worsen the conditions.
Twelfth class – Antiseptic & Antimaggot – antiseptic ointments and sprays are common in use and help in wound healing. They work best when used along with some other drugs.
Thirteenth class – Infusions – fluid therapy is essential part of treatment and it can save animal from death if use appropriate type of fluid. There are many different types of fluid.
Fourteenth class is Antibloat medicines. These medicines are life saving drugs mainly for buffaloes and goats.
Fifteenth class is of Insecticides & acaricides which are used over the body to kill external parasites lices, ticks, mites etc. Their toxicities are common if they do not use properly.
ANTIVIRALS, ANTIFUNGAL AND ANTINEOPLASTICS (SOME OTHER CLASSES ALSO) ARE NOT AVAILABLE FOR VETERINARY USE in large animal or farm animal, however some human medicine are used in pet animals.